Миопия слабой степени

Миопия слабой степени, или, проще говоря, близорукость — довольно распространенная проблема среди современного населения. К врачам постоянно обращаются пациенты, жалующиеся на слабую видимость дальних предметов. Конечно же, наиболее часто диагностируется легкая и средняя степень близорукости.Содержание:
1. Лечение
2. Профилактика
3. При беременности
4. Обоих глаз

Лечение

Основным способом лечением миопии слабой степени (коррекции) являются очки или контактные линзы. При ношении они исправляют нарушение рефракции, вызывающее симптомы миопии. Их особенность в том, что они не лечат, а улучшают зрение временно.

При незначительной степени близорукости, как правило, проводится полная коррекция (достигается 100% зрение). Прописывают очки или линзы для обеспечения хорошего зрения вдаль.

Носить их можно только при необходимости. Поскольку вблизи пациенты с такой степенью видят хорошо, очки для постоянного ношения им не нужны. Постоянное их ношение может привести к перенапряжению аккомодации и ухудшению зрения.

Рефракционная хирургия является эффективным способом лечения. Операция ЛАСИК – один из наиболее популярных современных видов рефракционной хирургии. Также для лечения проводят фоторефракционную кератектомию (ФРК) и операцию ЛАСЕК. Все они предусматривают применения лазера для исправления формы роговицы.

Изменяя роговицу, эти операции дают возможность лучам света фокусироваться на сетчатке. Тем самым исправляется зрение человека.

При ФРК удаляется верхний слой роговицы (эпителий). Затем с помощью лазера меняется форма роговицы, удаляется часть ее ткани. Верхний слой, удаленный во время операции, нарастает снова в период заживления. ФРК можно использовать для исправления одновременно миопии и астигматизма.

Близорукость даже небольшой степени не стоит игнорировать. Невозможность четко видеть удаленные объекты может повлиять на вашу безопасность, а также способность участвовать в деятельности, которая требует зрения вдаль. Если не лечить, миопия может ухудшиться.Узнайте как проходит лечение пингвекулы

Как лечить отслоение сетчатки глаза здесь

Симптомы вирусного конъюнктивита у ребенка http://proglaziki.ru/bolezni/konktivit/virusnyj-konyunktivit-u-rebenka.html

Профилактика

Для профилактики миопии слабой степени необходимо придерживаться таких правил:

  • Пользоваться правильно подобранными очками или контактными линзами.
  • Принимать комплекс витаминов и микроэлементов для глаз, в состав которых входит лютен.
  • Сбалансировано питаться.
  • Соблюдать зрительный режим. Не работать долгое время за компьютером и не слишком увлекаться просмотром телепередач. Читать следует сидя за столом. Рабочее место должно быть хорошо освещено.
  • Также, необходимо регулярно выполнять гимнастику для глаз.
  • Отметим, что при миопии не рекомендуется заниматься такими видами спорта, как бокс, борьба, тяжелая атлетика, спортивные прыжки, хоккей и др.
  • Выполняя все эти рекомендации, можно не только остановить ухудшение зрения, но и полностью его восстановить, не прибегая к хирургическому вмешательству.

При беременности

Миопия, или так называемая близорукость, у беременных женщин порой становится показанием к кесареву сечению. Правда, операцию проводят, как правило, если миопия достаточно высокая. При незначительных ухудшениях зрения врач смотрит на состояние сетчатки глаза. Поэтому всем без исключения женщинам, вставшим на учет по беременности, необходимо пройти консультацию у окулиста.

Даже если у беременной миопия слабой степени, следует всю беременность наблюдаться у врача-офтальмолога. Обычно сама беременность не влияет на развитие заболевания. Проблемы могут возникнуть в процессе родов. Сетчатка при миопии становится слабой, тонкой, а в период родовой деятельности напрягаются все группы мышц, в том числе и глазные. Вследствие этого может произойти отслоение сетчатки, ведущее к резкому снижению зрения или даже полной слепоте. Поэтому решение об оперативном родоразрешении принимается совместно с окулистом.

Как правило, при миопии средней или высокой степени тяжести врачи в нашей стране не рекомендуют естественные роды. Однако в западных странах доктора не проводят оперативные вмешательства в родовой процесс при миопии даже сильной степени. Они считают, что мышцы, расположенные выше диафрагмы, не испытывают сильного напряжения при потугах, а значит, риск отслойки сетчатки практически минимален.

Как видим, миопия и беременность вещи вполне совместимые. Даже если, вынашивая малыша, сетчатка начинает отслаиваться, врачи проводят специальную операцию лазером, заключающуюся в «приклеивании» сетчатки в тех местах, где она отходит от роговицы. Данную процедуру проводят даже на поздних сроках беременности.

Иногда во время беременности зрение может незначительно упасть. Это связано с высокими нагрузками на организм женщины и без того страдающей миопией. Как правило, такие изменения не приводят к сильному ухудшению зрения, обычно после родов оно кардинально не меняется.

Чтобы снизить нагрузку на глаза во время беременности, ограничьте пребывание у телевизора и компьютера, почаще гуляйте на свежем воздухе, употребляйте продукты, полезные для глаз (чернику, морковь, орехи), делайте профилактическую гимнастику.

Обоих глаз

Миопия слабой степени обеих глаз (до 3 диоптрий) на сегодняшний день является скорее не болезнью, а особенностью или аномалией зрения.

Часто такое расстройство зрения появляется во время беременности у беременных женщин. В большинстве случаев миопия проявляется в том, что человек неотчетливо видит удаленные предметы и, чтобы лучше их разглядеть, щурится. У близоруких людей, которые не носят контактные линзы или очки, из-за непрерывного прищуривания появляются преждевременные морщинки.

Чаще всего миопия слабой степени требует лишь коррекции контактными линзами или стеклами.

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